An Army for the Ages

The American Civil War is often described as a young person’s fight. While many of the soldiers who fought in the war were less than 18 years of age, there were also thousands of older soldiers who filled the ranks. The average Civil War soldier was about 25 years of age. Although one-quarter of the 2.1 million men who served in the Union military forces were foreign-born, the majority of the soldiers who fought for the union were young white males who were born in North America. African-Americans were not permitted to join the Union Army until May of 1863. By the end of hostilities, nearly 180,000 African-American men had served in the Northern military forces, mostly in the newly forme

Ike & Alexa

Over the course of the long history of the American presidency, few of those whom have led our nation have been viewed as true visionaries.

Killing England: A Book Review

Killing England: The Brutal Struggle for American Independence by Bill O’Reilly and Martin Dugard. (New York: Henry Holt and Company, 2017). 340 pages. $30.00 While historians might abruptly dismiss the historical volumes produced by the partnership of former Fox television commentator Bill O’Reilly and Martin Dugard as “History-lite,” the books do serve to fill a certain void in historical scholarship. Intensely popular, and always commanding a place on the New York Times non-fiction best seller list, the books are written in a comfortable, story-telling style that brings history alive for the general reader. Killing England is the latest in the so-called “Killing” series that features su

The Old is New: A Russian Armor Breastplate Used in World War II

Although the two World Wars of the Twentieth Century are viewed as modern wars, it is stunning to consider that many of the soldiers who fought in these conflicts went into battle wearing armor plating that resembled the chest plates that had been worn centuries earlier by medieval knights. During World War 1, elite German, Russian and British combatants, such as sappers or “trench-raiders,” were provided with specially designed armor that was fitted over the torso to provide an enhanced measure of protection against shrapnel and bullets. The armor also edged an advantage in hand-to-hand combat, when knives or clubs were used. Although it was not very effective against firearms encountered a

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